Recognising patients at risk of deterioration: Recognising that a patient is deteriorating prior to the point that their level of consciousness drops so low they are unable to protect their own airway, is always preferable to reacting only once the airway has become obstructed. National Early Warning Scores 2 (NEWS2) provide an early indication of patient deterioration on the ward.  A decreasing trend on the GCS or ACVPU scale (see D chapter) may be noted by the nursing staff and on the observation chart.

Anaphylaxis: Anaphylaxis can occur in hospital secondary to an allergic drug reaction. It is important to take an accurate drug allergy history on every patient admitted to hospital.