The D component of the ABCDE approach is concerned with addressing problems with the patient’s neurological status.

A patient’s level of consciousness depends on a wide variety of different homeostatic components. Some of the main causes of reduced conscious level include:

Most causes of dysfunction of the central nervous system are picked up as part of A, B or C but this section is mainly focused on a few key areas, which can be easily missed. It is also important to consider the possibility of intracranial processes such as infarction or haemorrhage.